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Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan

Professor

Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan currently serves as Professor at department of Electronics and Communication, Amrita School of Engineering.

Qualification: B-Tech, MS, Ph.D
sundar@am.amrita.edu
Research Interest: Electronic Materials, Semiconductor Devices, Very-Large-Scale Integration (VLSI) Fabrication

Bio

Sundar Gopalan received his Bachelor of Technology degree from the Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India, in May 1995. He completed his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Texas at Austin, USA in the area of Microelectronic Engineering in 2002. He worked in International Sematech, a semiconductor research consortium located in Austin, Texas, USA, as a Post-Doc and Process research engineer for two years in the Advanced Gate Stack Engineering Group. There he was involved in studying and designing new gate stack structures for the next generation CMOS Technology. He joined the Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering at Amrita School of Engineering, Amritapuri Campus, India, in August of 2004. He is serving as professor and chairperson of ECE department. He has authored/co-authored more than 42 International publications. He specializes in the areas of Electronic Materials, Semiconductor Devices, VLSI Fabrication, Materials Characterization, Processing and Mechanical Behavior of Materials.

 

Publications

Journal Article

Year : 2021

Effect of Silicon Nitride on Physical Properties of SBR

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Rahulan N, Anirudh Mohan T P; R. Harikrishnan;

Publisher : Materials Today: Proceedings

R. Harikrishnan, T. P. Anirudh Mohan, Rahulan N., and Sudararaman Gopalan, “Effect of Silicon Nitride on Physical Properties of SBR”, Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 43, pp. 3833-3836, 2021.

Year : 2020

Piezoelectric studies of PEDOT:PSS incorporated BaTiO3/ PDMS micro-generator

Authors : Dr. Sreekala C. O., Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Baby Sreeja S. D.;;

Publisher : Materials Today

Baby Sreeja S. D., Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, and Dr. Sreekala C. O., “Piezoelectric studies of PEDOT:PSS incorporated BaTiO3/ PDMS micro-generator”, Materials Today: Proceedings, 2020.

Year : 2018

Effects of substrate heating and post-deposition annealing on characteristics of thin MOCVD HfO 2 films

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Ramesh, S., Dutta, S., and Garbhapu, V. Virajit

Publisher : IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering

Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Ramesh, S., Dutta, S., and Garbhapu, V. Virajit, “Effects of substrate heating and post-deposition annealing on characteristics of thin MOCVD HfO 2 films”, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 310, p. 012125, 2018

Year : 2018

A critical review on the utilization of storage and demand response on the implementation of renewable energy microgrids

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, D. Fabien Chi Robert, Sisodia, G. Singh

Publisher : Sustainable Cities and Society, Special issue on Microgrid Implementation and Optimization,


D. Fabien Chi Robert, Sisodia, G. Singh, and Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, “A critical review on the utilization of storage and demand response on the implementation of renewable energy microgrids”, Sustainable Cities and Society, Special issue on Microgrid Implementation and Optimization, Elsevier, vol. 40, pp. 735 - 745, 2018.

Year : 2018

Affordable Rural Electricity Through Intelligent Grid Extension And Local Renewable Energy Generation

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, F. C. Robert, Sisodia

Publisher : Sustainable Cities and Society, Special issue on Microgrid Implementation and Optimization


F. C. Robert, Sisodia, G. S., and Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, “Affordable Rural Electricity Through Intelligent Grid Extension And Local Renewable Energy Generation”, Sustainable Cities and Society, Special issue on Microgrid Implementation and Optimization; Elsevier, 2018.

Year : 2018

A critical review on the utilization of storage and demand response for the implementation of renewable energy microgrids

Authors : Dr. Fabien Chidanand Robert, Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Sisodia, G. Singh .

Publisher : Sustainable Cities and Society, .

Fabien Chidanand Robert, Sisodia, G. Singh, and Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, “A critical review on the utilization of storage and demand response for the implementation of renewable energy microgrids”, Sustainable Cities and Society, vol. 40, pp. 735 - 745, 2018.

Year : 2018

Low cost, highly reliable rural electrification through a combination of grid extension and local renewable energy generation

Authors : Dr. Fabien Chidanand Robert, Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan

Publisher : Sustainable Cities and Society .

Fabien Chidanand Robert and Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, “Low cost, highly reliable rural electrification through a combination of grid extension and local renewable energy generation”, Sustainable Cities and Society, vol. 42, pp. 344 - 354, 2018.

Year : 2014

Identification of current transport mechanism in Al2O3 thin films for memory applications

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, S. Ramesh, Dutta, S., Balakrishnan Shankar

Publisher : Applied Nanoscience

S. Ramesh, Dutta, S., Balakrishnan Shankar, and Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, “Identification of current transport mechanism in Al2O3 thin films for memory applications”, Applied Nanoscience, vol. 5, pp. 115-123, 2014.

Year : 2012

Effect of PVD process parameters on the quality and reliability of thin (10–30 nm) Al2O3 dielectrics

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, S. Dutta, Ramesh, S., Shankar, B

Publisher : Applied Nanoscience

S. Dutta, Ramesh, S., Shankar, B., and Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, “Effect of PVD process parameters on the quality and reliability of thin (10–30 nm) Al2O3 dielectrics”, Applied Nanoscience, vol. 2, pp. 1–6, 2012.

Year : 2011

Low-cost remote patient monitoring system based on reduced platform computer technology.

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, N. A. Jacob, Pillai, V., Nair, S., ,, Harrell, D. T., Delhommer, R., Chen, B., Sanchez, I., Almstrum, V

Publisher : Telemedicine and e-Health, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 140 Huguenot Street, 3rd Floor New Rochelle, NY 10801 USA,

N. A. Jacob, Pillai, V., Nair, S., ,, Harrell, D. T., Delhommer, R., Chen, B., Sanchez, I., Almstrum, V., and Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, “Low-cost remote patient monitoring system based on reduced platform computer technology.”, Telemedicine journal and e-health : the official journal of the American Telemedicine Association, vol. 17, pp. 536-545, 2011

Year : 2004

Subnanometer scaling of HfO2/metal electrode gate stacks

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, J. J. Peterson, Young, C. D., Barnett, J., Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Gutt, J., Lee, C. - H., Li, H. - J., Hou, T. - H., Kim, Y., Lim, C

Publisher : Electrochemical and solid-state letters, The Electrochemical Society,

J. J. Peterson, Young, C. D., Barnett, J., Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Gutt, J., Lee, C. - H., Li, H. - J., Hou, T. - H., Kim, Y., Lim, C., and , “Subnanometer scaling of HfO2/metal electrode gate stacks”, Electrochemical and solid-state letters, vol. 7, pp. G164–G167, 2004.

Year : 2003

Improvement of surface carrier mobility of HfO 2 MOSFETs by high-temperature forming gas annealing

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, K. Onishi, Kang, C. Seok, Choi, R., Cho, H. - J., Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Nieh, R. E., Krishnan, S. A., and Lee, J. C

Publisher : Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on, IEEE,


K. Onishi, Kang, C. Seok, Choi, R., Cho, H. - J., Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Nieh, R. E., Krishnan, S. A., and Lee, J. C., “Improvement of surface carrier mobility of HfO 2 MOSFETs by high-temperature forming gas annealing”, Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 50, pp. 384–390, 2003.

Year : 2003

High-performance TaN/HfSiON/Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structures prepared by NH3 post-deposition anneal

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, M. Shahariar Akbar, Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Cho, H. - J., Onishi, K., Choi, R., Nieh, R., Kang, C. S., Kim, Y. H., Han, J., Krishnan, S.

Publisher : Applied physics letters, American Institute of Physics,


M. Shahariar Akbar, Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Cho, H. - J., Onishi, K., Choi, R., Nieh, R., Kang, C. S., Kim, Y. H., Han, J., Krishnan, S., and , “High-performance TaN/HfSiON/Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structures prepared by NH3 post-deposition anneal”, Applied physics letters, vol. 82, pp. 1757–1759, 2003.

Year : 2002

Bonding states and electrical properties of ultrathin HfO$_x$N$_y$ gate dielectrics

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, C. S. Kang, Cho, H. - J., Onishi, K., Nieh, R., Choi, R., Krishnan, S., Han, J. H., and Lee, J. C

Publisher : Applied Physics Letters

C. S. Kang, Cho, H. - J., Onishi, K., Nieh, R., Choi, R., Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Krishnan, S., Han, J. H., and Lee, J. C., “Bonding states and electrical properties of ultrathin HfO$_x$N$_y$ gate dielectrics”, Applied Physics Letters, vol. 81, p. 2593, 2002.

Year : 2002

Evaluation of silicon surface nitridation effects on ultra-thin ZrO2 gate dielectrics

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, R. Nieh, Choi, R., Onishi, K., Kang, C. Seok, Cho, H. - J., Krishnan, S., and Lee, J. C

Publisher : Applied physics letters, AIP Publishing,


R. Nieh, Choi, R., Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Onishi, K., Kang, C. Seok, Cho, H. - J., Krishnan, S., and Lee, J. C., “Evaluation of silicon surface nitridation effects on ultra-thin ZrO2 gate dielectrics”, Applied physics letters, vol. 81, pp. 1663–1665, 2002.

Year : 2002

Structural and electrical properties of HfO 2 with top nitrogen incorporated layer

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, H. - J. Cho, Kang, C. Seok, Onishi, K., Nieh, R., Choi, R., Krishnan, S., and Lee, J. C.

Publisher : Electron Device Letters, IEEE, IEEE

H. - J. Cho, Kang, C. Seok, Onishi, K., Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Nieh, R., Choi, R., Krishnan, S., and Lee, J. C., “Structural and electrical properties of HfO 2 with top nitrogen incorporated layer”, Electron Device Letters, IEEE, vol. 23, pp. 249–251, 2002.

Year : 2002

Process development, material analysis, and electrical characterization of ultra thin hafnium silicate films for alternative gate dielectric application

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan

Publisher : ProQuest Dissertations And Theses; Thesis (Ph.D.)--The University of Texas at Austin,

Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, “Process development, material analysis, and electrical characterization of ultra thin hafnium silicate films for alternative gate dielectric application”, ProQuest Dissertations And Theses; Thesis (Ph.D.)--The University of Texas at Austin, vol. 64, no. 01, p. 0367;176 , 2002.

Year : 2002

Electrical and physical characteristics of ultrathin hafnium silicate films with polycrystalline silicon and TaN gates

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Onishi, K., Nieh, R., Kang, C. S., Choi, R., Cho, H. - J., Krishnan, S., and Lee, J. C

Publisher : AIP Publishing


Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Onishi, K., Nieh, R., Kang, C. S., Choi, R., Cho, H. - J., Krishnan, S., and Lee, J. C., “Electrical and physical characteristics of ultrathin hafnium silicate films with polycrystalline silicon and TaN gates”, Applied physics letters, vol. 80, pp. 4416–4418, 2002.

Year : 2002

Area dependence of TDDB characteristics for HfO2 gate dielectrics

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Y. Hee Kim, Onishi, K., Kang, C. Seok, Cho, H. - J., Nieh, R., Choi, R., Han, J., Krishnan, S., and Lee, J. C.

Publisher : IEEE Electron Device Letters


Y. Hee Kim, Onishi, K., Kang, C. Seok, Cho, H. - J., Nieh, R., Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Choi, R., Han, J., Krishnan, S., and Lee, J. C., “Area dependence of TDDB characteristics for HfO2 gate dielectrics”, IEEE Electron Device Letters, vol. 23, pp. 594-596, 2002.

Year : 2000

Ultrathin Gate Oxynitrides Grown Using Fast Ramp Vertical Furnace for Sub-130 Nanometer Technology

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, A. Lucas, Lee, J. C., Kaushal, S., Niino, R., and Tada, Y.

Publisher : Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters

A. Lucas, Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Lee, J. C., Kaushal, S., Niino, R., and Tada, Y., “Ultrathin Gate Oxynitrides Grown Using Fast Ramp Vertical Furnace for Sub-130 Nanometer Technology”, Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters, vol. 3, pp. 389–391, 2000.

Year : 2000

Study of the electronic conduction mechanism in Nb-doped SrTiO3 thin films with Ir and Pt electrodes

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Balu, Venkat; Lee, Jian-Hung; Hee-Han, Jeong; Lee, Jack C

Publisher : AIP Publishing

S. Gopalan, Balu, V., Lee, J. - H., Hee-Han, J., and Lee, J. C., “Study of the electronic conduction mechanism in Nb-doped SrTiO3 thin films with Ir and Pt electrodes”, Applied Physics Letters, vol. 77, pp. 1526–1528, 2000.

Year : 2000

Electrical characteristics of highly reliable ultrathin hafnium oxide gate dielectric

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, L. Kang, Lee, B. Hun, Qi, W. - J., Jeon, Y., Nieh, R., Onishi, K., and Lee, J. C

Publisher : Electron Device Letters, IEEE


L. Kang, Lee, B. Hun, Qi, W. - J., Jeon, Y., Nieh, R., Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Onishi, K., and Lee, J. C., “Electrical characteristics of highly reliable ultrathin hafnium oxide gate dielectric”, Electron Device Letters, IEEE, vol. 21, pp. 181–183, 2000

Year : 1999

The niobium doping effects on resistance degradation of strontium titanate thin film capacitors

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, J. - H. Lee, Mohammedali, R., Han, J. H., Balu, V., Wong, C. - H., and Lee, J. C.

Publisher : Applied physics letters, AIP Publishing,

J. - H. Lee, Mohammedali, R., Han, J. H., Balu, V., Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Wong, C. - H., and Lee, J. C., “The niobium doping effects on resistance degradation of strontium titanate thin film capacitors”, Applied physics letters, vol. 75, pp. 1455–1457, 1999.

Year : 1999

Effect of niobium doping on the microstructure and electrical properties of strontium titanate thin films for semiconductor memory application

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Wong, C. - H., Balu, V., Lee, J. - H., Han, J. H., Mohammedali, R., and Lee, J. C

Publisher : Applied physics letters, AIP

Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Wong, C. - H., Balu, V., Lee, J. - H., Han, J. H., Mohammedali, R., and Lee, J. C., “Effect of niobium doping on the microstructure and electrical properties of strontium titanate thin films for semiconductor memory application”, Applied physics letters, vol. 75, pp. 2123–2125, 1999.

Conference Paper

Year : 2020

Analysis of Active Contours Without Edge-Based Segmentation Technique for Brain Tumor Classification Using SVM and KNN Classifiers

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Remya

Publisher : Advances in Communication Systems and Networks,

Remya Ajai A. S. and Gopalan, S., “Analysis of Active Contours Without Edge-Based Segmentation Technique for Brain Tumor Classification Using SVM and KNN Classifiers”, in Advances in Communication Systems and Networks, Singapore, 2020.

Year : 2018

Comparison of High K Metal Gate Based CMOS Amplifiers performance with traditional Gate stack structures

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, S. M, Anand, D., A, D. P.

Publisher : ICEES 2018, 4th International Conference on Electrical Energy System


S. M, Anand, D., A, D. P., and Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, “Comparison of High K Metal Gate Based CMOS Amplifiers performance with traditional Gate stack structures”, in ICEES 2018, 4th International Conference on Electrical Energy System , India, 2018.

Year : 2018

Accessing the performance of CMOS Amplifiers using High-k-Dielectric with Metal Gate on high mobility substrate

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, D. Anand, M, S., A, P.

Publisher : ICACDS 2018, Springer CCIS

D. Anand, M, S., Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, and A, P., “Accessing the performance of CMOS Amplifiers using High-k-Dielectric with Metal Gate on high mobility substrate”, in ICACDS 2018, Springer CCIS, 2018.

Year : 2017

IoT Based Low Cost Single Sensor Node Remote Health Monitoring System

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, V. Virajit Garbhapu

Publisher : 8th International Conference on Emerging Ubiquitous Systems and Pervasive Networks, EUSPN 2017 and the 7th International Conference on Current and Future Trends of Information and Communication Technologies in Healthcare,


V. Virajit Garbhapu and Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, “IoT Based Low Cost Single Sensor Node Remote Health Monitoring System”, in 8th International Conference on Emerging Ubiquitous Systems and Pervasive Networks, EUSPN 2017 and the 7th International Conference on Current and Future Trends of Information and Communication Technologies in Healthcare, ICTH 2017, Lund; Sweden, 2017, vol. 113, pp. 408 - 415.

Year : 2017

The critical role of anchor customers in rural microgrids, Impact of load factor on energy cost

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Dr. Fabien Chidanand Robert

Publisher : 2017 International Conference on Computation of Power, Energy Information and Commuincation

Fabien Chidanand Robert, Sisodia, G. S., and Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, “The critical role of anchor customers in rural microgrids, Impact of load factor on energy cost”, in 2017 International Conference on Computation of Power, Energy Information and Commuincation (ICCPEIC), Chennai, India, 2017

Year : 2005

ALD of advanced high-k and metal gate stacks for MOS devices

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, J. Gutt, Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Brown, G. A., Kirsch, P. D., Peterson, J. J., Gardner, M. I., Li, H. - J., Lysaght, P., Alshareef, H. N., Choi, K

Publisher : Proceedings-Electrochemical Society, Electrochemical Society

J. Gutt, Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Brown, G. A., Kirsch, P. D., Peterson, J. J., Gardner, M. I., Li, H. - J., Lysaght, P., Alshareef, H. N., Choi, K., and , “ALD of advanced high-k and metal gate stacks for MOS devices”, in Proceedings-Electrochemical Society, 2005, vol. PV 2005-05, pp. 282-292.

Year : 2004

Intrinsic characteristics of high-k devices and implications of fast transient charging effects (FTCE)

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, B. H. Lee, Young, C. D., Choi, R., Sim, J. H., Bersuker, G., Kang, C. Y., Harris, R., Brown, G. A., Matthews, K., Song, S. C., Moumen, N., Barnett, J., Lysaght, P., Choi, K. S., Wen, H. C., Huffman, C., Alshareef, H., Majhi, P., Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Peterson, J., Kirsh, P., Li, H. J., Gutt, J., Gardner, M., Huff, H. R., Zeitzoff, P., Murto, R. W., Larson, L., and Ramiller, C.

Publisher : IEDM Technical Digest. IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting

B. H. Lee, Young, C. D., Choi, R., Sim, J. H., Bersuker, G., Kang, C. Y., Harris, R., Brown, G. A., Matthews, K., Song, S. C., Moumen, N., Barnett, J., Lysaght, P., Choi, K. S., Wen, H. C., Huffman, C., Alshareef, H., Majhi, P., Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Peterson, J., Kirsh, P., Li, H. J., Gutt, J., Gardner, M., Huff, H. R., Zeitzoff, P., Murto, R. W., Larson, L., and Ramiller, C., “Intrinsic characteristics of high-k devices and implications of fast transient charging effects (FTCE)”, in IEDM Technical Digest. IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, 2004., 2004.

Year : 2004

Integration issues of high-k gate stack: Process-induced charging

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, G. Bersuker, Gutt, J., Chaudhary, N., Moumen, N., Lee, B. H., Barnett, J., Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Brown, G., Kim, Y., Young, C. D

Publisher : Reliability Physics Symposium Proceedings, 2004. 42nd Annual. 2004 IEEE International, IEEE (2004)

G. Bersuker, Gutt, J., Chaudhary, N., Moumen, N., Lee, B. H., Barnett, J., Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Brown, G., Kim, Y., Young, C. D., and , “Integration issues of high-k gate stack: Process-induced charging”, in Reliability Physics Symposium Proceedings, 2004. 42nd Annual. 2004 IEEE International, 2004

Year : 2004

Experimental study of etched back thermal oxide for optimization of the Si/high-k interface

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, J. Barnett, Moumen, N., Gutt, J., Gardner, M., Huffman, C., Majhi, P., Peterson, J. J., Foran, B., Li, H. J

Publisher : 2004 Spring Meeting of the Material Research Society

J. Barnett, Moumen, N., Gutt, J., Gardner, M., Huffman, C., Majhi, P., Peterson, J. J., Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Foran, B., Li, H. J., and , “Experimental study of etched back thermal oxide for optimization of the Si/high-k interface”, in 2004 Spring Meeting of the Material Research Society, 2004.


Year : 2004

Charge trapping and electron mobility degradation in MOCVD hafnium silicate gate dielectric stack structures

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, C. D. Young, Kerber, A., Hou, T. H., Cartier, E., Brown, G. A., Bersuker, G., Kim, Y., Lim, C., Gutt, J., Lysaght, P

Publisher : 2004

C. D. Young, Kerber, A., Hou, T. H., Cartier, E., Brown, G. A., Bersuker, G., Kim, Y., Lim, C., Gutt, J., Lysaght, P., and Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, “Charge trapping and electron mobility degradation in MOCVD hafnium silicate gate dielectric stack structures”, 2004.

Year : 2003

EOT scaling and device issues for high-k gate dielectrics

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, M. I. Gardner, Gutt, J., Peterson, J., Li, H. - J., and Huff, H. R.

Publisher : Gate Insulator, 2003. IWGI 2003. Extended Abstracts of International Workshop


M. I. Gardner, Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Gutt, J., Peterson, J., Li, H. - J., and Huff, H. R., “EOT scaling and device issues for high-k gate dielectrics”, in Gate Insulator, 2003. IWGI 2003. Extended Abstracts of International Workshop on, 2003.

Year : 2003

Charge trapping and mobility degradation in MOCVD hafnium silicate gate dielectric stack structures

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, C. D. Young, Kerber, A., Hou, T. H., Cartier, E., Brown, G. A., Bersuker, G., Kim, Y., Lim, C., Gutt, J., Lysaght, P

Publisher : 2003.

C. D. Young, Kerber, A., Hou, T. H., Cartier, E., Brown, G. A., Bersuker, G., Kim, Y., Lim, C., Gutt, J., Lysaght, P., Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, and , “Charge trapping and mobility degradation in MOCVD hafnium silicate gate dielectric stack structures”, 2003.

Year : 2002

Impact of NH/sub 3/ pre-treatment on the electrical and reliability characteristics of ultra thin hafnium silicate films prepared by re-oxidation method

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Choi, R., Onishi, K., Nieh, R., Kang, C. S., Cho, H. J., Krishnan, S., and Lee, J. C.

Publisher : 60th DRC. Conference Digest Device Research Conference


Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Choi, R., Onishi, K., Nieh, R., Kang, C. S., Cho, H. J., Krishnan, S., and Lee, J. C., “Impact of NH/sub 3/ pre-treatment on the electrical and reliability characteristics of ultra thin hafnium silicate films prepared by re-oxidation method”, in 60th DRC. Conference Digest Device Research Conference, 2002

Year : 2002

High quality MOSFETs fabrication with HfO/sub 2/ gate dielectric and tan gate electrode

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, R. Choi, Onishi, K., Kang, C. Scok, Nieh, R., Cho, H. - J., Krishnan, S., and Lee, J. C.

Publisher : 60th DRC. Conference Digest Device Research Conference, IEEE


R. Choi, Onishi, K., Kang, C. Scok, Nieh, R., Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Cho, H. - J., Krishnan, S., and Lee, J. C., “High quality MOSFETs fabrication with HfO/sub 2/ gate dielectric and tan gate electrode”, in 60th DRC. Conference Digest Device Research Conference, 2002.

Year : 2002

Fabrication of high quality ultra-thin HfO/sub 2/gate dielectric MOSFETs using deuterium anneal

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, R. Choi, Onishi, K., Kang, C. Seok, Nieh, R., Kim, Y. H., Han, J. H., Krishnan, S., Cho, H. - J., Shahriar, A

Publisher : Electron Devices Meeting, 2002. IEDM'02. International, IEEE

R. Choi, Onishi, K., Kang, C. Seok, Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Nieh, R., Kim, Y. H., Han, J. H., Krishnan, S., Cho, H. - J., Shahriar, A., and , “Fabrication of high quality ultra-thin HfO/sub 2/gate dielectric MOSFETs using deuterium anneal”, in Electron Devices Meeting, 2002. IEDM'02. International, 2002.

Year : 2002

Effects of high-temperature forming gas anneal on HfO/sub 2/MOSFET performance

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, K. Onishi, Kang, C. Seok, Choi, R., Cho, H. - J., Nieh, R., Krishnan, S., and Lee, J. C

Publisher : VLSI Technology, 2002. Digest of Technical Papers. 2002 Symposium on, IEEE


K. Onishi, Kang, C. Seok, Choi, R., Cho, H. - J., Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Nieh, R., Krishnan, S., and Lee, J. C., “Effects of high-temperature forming gas anneal on HfO/sub 2/MOSFET performance”, in VLSI Technology, 2002. Digest of Technical Papers. 2002 Symposium on, 2002.


Year : 2002

Comparison between ultra-thin ZrO/sub 2/ and ZrO/sub x/N/sub y/ gate dielectrics in TaN or poly-gated NMOSCAP and NMOSFET devices

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, R. Nieh, Krishnan, S., Cho, H. - J., Kang, C. Seok, Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Onishi, K., Choi, R., and Lee, J. C

Publisher : 2002 Symposium on VLSI Technology. Digest of Technical Papers


R. Nieh, Krishnan, S., Cho, H. - J., Kang, C. Seok, Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Onishi, K., Choi, R., and Lee, J. C., “Comparison between ultra-thin ZrO/sub 2/ and ZrO/sub x/N/sub y/ gate dielectrics in TaN or poly-gated NMOSCAP and NMOSFET devices”, in 2002 Symposium on VLSI Technology. Digest of Technical Papers (Cat. No.01CH37303), 2002.

Year : 2002

Charging effects on reliability of HfO2 devices with polysilicon gate electrode

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, K. Onishi, Kang, C. Seok, Choi, R., Cho, H. - J., Nieh, R., Krishnan, S., and Lee, J. C

Publisher : 2002 IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium. Proceedings. 40th Annual

K. Onishi, Kang, C. Seok, Choi, R., Cho, H. - J., Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Nieh, R., Krishnan, S., and Lee, J. C., “Charging effects on reliability of HfO2 devices with polysilicon gate electrode”, in 2002 IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium. Proceedings. 40th Annual (Cat. No.02CH37320), 2002.

Year : 2001

Dopant Penetration Effects on Polysilicon Gate HfO\~ 2 MOSFET’s

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Onishi, Katsunori; Kang, Laegu; Choi, Rino; Dharmarajan, Easwar;; Jeon, Yongjoo; Kang, Chang Seok; Lee, Byoung Hun; Nieh, Renee; Lee, Jack C

Publisher : Symposium on VLSI Technology

K. Onishi, Kang, L., Choi, R., Dharmarajan, E., Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Jeon, Y., Kang, C. Seok, Lee, B. Hun, Nieh, R., and Lee, J. C., “Dopant Penetration Effects on Polysilicon Gate HfO\~ 2 MOSFET's”, in Symposium on VLSI Technology, 2001.

Year : 2001

HIGH-K GATE DIELECTRICS: Hf02, ZK> 2, AND THEIR SILICATES

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, R. Nieh, Onishi, K., Choi, R., Dharmarajan, E.,, Kang, C. S., and Lee, J. C.

Publisher : Rapid Thermal and Other Short-time Processing Technologies II: Proceedings of the International Symposium,

R. Nieh, Onishi, K., Choi, R., Dharmarajan, E., Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Kang, C. S., and Lee, J. C., “HIGH-K GATE DIELECTRICS: Hf02, ZK> 2, AND THEIR SILICATES”, in Rapid Thermal and Other Short-time Processing Technologies II: Proceedings of the International Symposium, 2001.

Year : 2001

Reliability characteristics, including NBTI, of polysilicon gate HfO/sub 2/ MOSFET’s

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, K. Onishi; Chang Seok Kang; Rino Choi; Hag-Ju Cho; R. Nieh; E. Dharmarajan; J. C. Lee

Publisher : International Electron Devices Meeting. Technical Digest

K. Onishi, Kang, C. Seok, Choi, R., Cho, H. - J., Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Nieh, R., Dharmarajan, E., and Lee, J. C., “Reliability characteristics, including NBTI, of polysilicon gate HfO/sub 2/ MOSFET's”, in International Electron Devices Meeting. Technical Digest (Cat. No.01CH37224), 2001.

Year : 2001

Dopant Penetration Effects on Polysilicon Gate HfO\~ 2 MOSFET’s

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Onishi, Katsunori; Kang, Laegu; Choi, Rino; Dharmarajan, Easwar; Jeon, Yongjoo; Kang, Chang Seok; Lee, Byoung Hun; Nieh, Renee; Lee, Jack C

Publisher : Symposium on VLSI Technology

K. Onishi, Kang, L., Choi, R., Dharmarajan, E., Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Jeon, Y., Kang, C. Seok, Lee, B. Hun, Nieh, R., and Lee, J. C., “Dopant Penetration Effects on Polysilicon Gate HfO\~ 2 MOSFET's”, in Symposium on VLSI Technology, 2001.

Year : 2001

Ultrathin Hafnium Silicate Films with TaN and Polysilicon Gate Electrodes for Gate Dielectric Application

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, E. Dharmarajan; R. Nieh; K. Onishi; C. S. Kang; R. Choi; H. Cho; J. C. Lee

Publisher : 32nd IEEE Semiconductor Interface Specialist Conference, Washington DC

Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Dharmarajan, E., Nieh, R., Onishi, K., Kang, C. S., Choi, R., Cho, H., and Lee, J. C., “Ultrathin Hafnium Silicate Films with TaN and Polysilicon Gate Electrodes for Gate Dielectric Application”, in 32nd IEEE Semiconductor Interface Specialist Conference, Washington DC, 2001.

Year : 2001

Performance effects of two nitrogen incorporation techniques on TaN/HfO2 and poly/HfO2 MOSCAP and MOSFET devices

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, R. Nieh; K. Onishi; Rino Choi; Hag-Ju Cho; Chang Seok Kang;S. Krishna; J. C. Lee

Publisher : Extended Abstracts of International Workshop on Gate Insulator

R. Nieh, Onishi, K., Choi, R., Cho, H. - J., Kang, C. Seok, Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Krishna, S., and Lee, J. C., “Performance effects of two nitrogen incorporation techniques on TaN/HfO2 and poly/HfO2 MOSCAP and MOSFET devices”, in Extended Abstracts of International Workshop on Gate Insulator. IWGI 2001 (IEEE Cat. No.01EX537), 2001.

Year : 2001

Novel nitrogen profile engineering for improved TaN/HfO/sub 2//Si MOSFET performance

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, H. J. Cho; C. S. Kang; K. Onishi; R. Nieh; R. Choi; E. Dharmarajan; J. C. Lee

Publisher : International Electron Devices Meeting. Technical Digest

H. J. Cho, Kang, C. S., Onishi, K., Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Nieh, R., Choi, R., Dharmarajan, E., and Lee, J. C., “Novel nitrogen profile engineering for improved TaN/HfO/sub 2//Si MOSFET performance”, in International Electron Devices Meeting. Technical Digest (Cat. No.01CH37224), 2001.

Year : 2001

High-quality ultra-thin HfO/sub 2/ gate dielectric MOSFETs with TaN electrode and nitridation surface preparation

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Rino Choi; Chang Seok Kang; Byoung Hun Lee; K. Onishi; R. Nieh;E. Dharmarajan; J. C. Lee

Publisher : Symposium on VLSI Technology. Digest of Technical Papers

R. Choi, Kang, C. Seok, Lee, B. Hun, Onishi, K., Nieh, R., Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Dharmarajan, E., and Lee, J. C., “High-quality ultra-thin HfO/sub 2/ gate dielectric MOSFETs with TaN electrode and nitridation surface preparation”, in 2001 Symposium on VLSI Technology. Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE Cat. No.01 CH37184), 2001.

Year : 2001

HIGH-K GATE DIELECTRICS: Hf02, ZK> 2, AND THEIR SILICATES

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Nieh, R; Onishi, K; Choi, R; Dharmarajan, E; Kang, CS; Lee, JC

Publisher : The Electrochemical Society

R. Nieh, Onishi, K., Choi, R., Dharmarajan, E., Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Kang, C. S., and Lee, J. C., “HIGH-K GATE DIELECTRICS: Hf02, ZK> 2, AND THEIR SILICATES”, in Rapid Thermal and Other Short-time Processing Technologies II: Proceedings of the International Symposium, 2001.

Year : 2000

Single-Layer Thin HfO\~ 2 Gate Dielectric with n+-Polysilicon Gate

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Kang, Laegu; Jeon, Yongjoo; Onishi, Katsunori; Lee, Byoung Hun; Qi, Wen-Jie; Nieh, Renee;; Lee, Jack C

Publisher : SYMPOSIUM ON VLSI TECHNOLOGY

L. Kang, Jeon, Y., Onishi, K., Lee, B. Hun, Qi, W. - J., Nieh, R., Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, and Lee, J. C., “Single-Layer Thin HfO\~ 2 Gate Dielectric with n+-Polysilicon Gate”, in SYMPOSIUM ON VLSI TECHNOLOGY, 2000.

Year : 2000

Temperature effect on the reliability of ZrO2 gate dielectric deposited directly on silicon

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Wen-Jie Qi; R. Nieh; R. Onishi; Byoung Hun Lee; Laegu Kang; Yongjoo Jeon; Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan; J. C. Lee

Publisher : 2000 IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium Proceedings. 38th Annual

W. - J. Qi, Nieh, R., Onishi, R., Lee, B. Hun, Kang, L., Jeon, Y., Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, and Lee, J. C., “Temperature effect on the reliability of ZrO2 gate dielectric deposited directly on silicon”, in 2000 IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium Proceedings. 38th Annual (Cat. No.00CH37059), 2000.

Year : 2000

Single-Layer Thin HfO\~ 2 Gate Dielectric with n+-Polysilicon Gate

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Kang, Laegu; Jeon, Yongjoo; Onishi, Katsunori; Lee, Byoung Hun; Qi, Wen-Jie; Nieh, Renee; Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan; Lee, Jack C

Publisher : SYMPOSIUM ON VLSI TECHNOLOGY

L. Kang, Jeon, Y., Onishi, K., Lee, B. Hun, Qi, W. - J., Nieh, R., Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, and Lee, J. C., “Single-Layer Thin HfO\~ 2 Gate Dielectric with n+-Polysilicon Gate”, in SYMPOSIUM ON VLSI TECHNOLOGY, 2000.

Year : 2000

PROCESSING EFFECTS AND ELECTRICAL EVALUATION OF Z1O2 FORMED BY RTP OXIDATION OF Zr

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Nieh, Renee; Qi, Wen-Jie; Lee, Byoung Hun; Kang, Laegu; Jeon, Yongjoo; Onishi, Katsunori; Kang, Chang Seok; Dharmarajan, Easwar; Choi, Rino; others

Publisher : Low and High Dielectric Constant Materials: Materials Science, Processing, and Reliability Issues: Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium, The Electrochemical Society

R. Nieh, Qi, W. - J., Lee, B. Hun, Kang, L., Jeon, Y., Onishi, K., Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Kang, C. Seok, Dharmarajan, E., Choi, R., and , “PROCESSING EFFECTS AND ELECTRICAL EVALUATION OF Z1O2 FORMED BY RTP OXIDATION OF Zr”, in Low and High Dielectric Constant Materials: Materials Science, Processing, and Reliability Issues: Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium, 2000.


Year : 2000

MOSFET devices with polysilicon on single-layer HfO/sub 2/ high-K dielectrics

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, L. Kang; K. Onishi; Y. Jeon; Byoung Hun Lee; C. Kang; Wen-Jie Qi; R. Nieh; R. Choi; J. C. Lee

Publisher : International Electron Devices Meeting 2000. Technical Digest. IEDM

L. Kang, Onishi, K., Jeon, Y., Lee, B. Hun, Kang, C., Qi, W. - J., Nieh, R., Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Choi, R., and Lee, J. C., “MOSFET devices with polysilicon on single-layer HfO/sub 2/ high-K dielectrics”, in International Electron Devices Meeting 2000. Technical Digest. IEDM (Cat. No.00CH37138), 2000.

Year : 2000

Characteristics of TaN gate MOSFET with ultrathin hafnium oxide (8/spl Aring/-12/spl Aring/)

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Lee, Byoung Hun; Choi, Rino; Kang, Laegu;Nieh, Renee; Onishi, Katsunori; Jeon, Y; Qi, Wen-Jie; Kang, C; Lee, JC

Publisher : Electron Devices Meeting, 2000. IEDM'00. Technical Digest. International, IEEE

B. Hun Lee, Choi, R., Kang, L., Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Nieh, R., Onishi, K., Jeon, Y., Qi, W. - J., Kang, C., and Lee, J. C., “Characteristics of TaN gate MOSFET with ultrathin hafnium oxide (8/spl Aring/-12/spl Aring/)”, in Electron Devices Meeting, 2000. IEDM'00. Technical Digest. International, 2000.


Year : 1999

Highly reliable thin hafnium oxide gate dielectric

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Kang, Laegu; Lee, Byoung-Hun; Qi, Wen-Jie; Jeon, Yong-Joo; Nieh, Renee; Onishi, Katsunori; Lee, Jack C

Publisher : MRS Proceedings, Cambridge University Press (1999)

L. Kang, Lee, B. - H., Qi, W. - J., Jeon, Y. - J., Nieh, R., Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Onishi, K., and Lee, J. C., “Highly reliable thin hafnium oxide gate dielectric”, in MRS Proceedings, 1999.


Year : 1998

Reliability Characteristics, Including NBTI, of Polysilicon Gate HfO\~ 2 MOSFET’s

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, K. Onishi, Kang, C. Seok, Choi, R., Cho, H. - J.,, Nieh, R., Dharmarajan, E., and Lee, J. C.

Publisher : INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING,

K. Onishi, Kang, C. Seok, Choi, R., Cho, H. - J., Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Nieh, R., Dharmarajan, E., and Lee, J. C., “Reliability Characteristics, Including NBTI, of Polysilicon Gate HfO\~ 2 MOSFET's”, in INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING, 1998.

Year : 1998

Novel Nitrogen Profile Engineering for Improved TaN/HfO\~ 2/Si MOSFET Performance

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, H. - J. Cho, Kang, C. S., Onishi, K.,, Nieh, R., Choi, R., Dharmarajan, E., and Lee, J. C.

Publisher : International Electron Devices Meeting,

H. - J. Cho, Kang, C. S., Onishi, K., Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Nieh, R., Choi, R., Dharmarajan, E., and Lee, J. C., “Novel Nitrogen Profile Engineering for Improved TaN/HfO\~ 2/Si MOSFET Performance”, in International Electron Devices Meeting, 1998.

Year : 1998

Novel Nitrogen Profile Engineering for Improved TaN/HfO~ 2/Si MOSFET Performance

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Cho, H-J; Kang, CS; Onishi, K; Nieh, R; Choi, R; Dharmarajan, E; Lee, JC

Publisher : International Electron Devices Meeting

H. - J. Cho, Kang, C. S., Onishi, K., Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Nieh, R., Choi, R., Dharmarajan, E., and Lee, J. C., “Novel Nitrogen Profile Engineering for Improved TaN/HfO\~ 2/Si MOSFET Performance”, in International Electron Devices Meeting, 1998.

Year : 1998

Reliability Characteristics, Including NBTI, of Polysilicon Gate HfO~ 2 MOSFET’s

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Onishi, K; Kang, Chang Seok; Choi, Rino; Cho, H-J; Nieh, R; Dharmarajan, E; Lee, JC

Publisher : INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING

K. Onishi, Kang, C. Seok, Choi, R., Cho, H. - J., Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Nieh, R., Dharmarajan, E., and Lee, J. C., “Reliability Characteristics, Including NBTI, of Polysilicon Gate HfO\~ 2 MOSFET's”, in INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING, 1998.

Year : 1998

Study of Rf-Sputtered Ba (Zr x Ti 1- x) O 3 Thin Films for Ulsi Dram Application

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Lee, Jian-Hung; Chen, Tung-Sheng; Balu, Venkatasubramani; Han, Jeong; Mohammedali, Razak; Wong, Chun-Hui; Lee, Jack C

Publisher : MRS Proceedings, Cambridge University Press

J. - H. Lee, Chen, T. - S., Balu, V., Han, J., Mohammedali, R., Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Wong, C. - H., and Lee, J. C., “Study of Rf-Sputtered Ba (Zr x Ti 1- x) O 3 Thin Films for Ulsi Dram Application”, in MRS Proceedings, 1998.


Conference Proceedings

Year : 2019

Photovoltaic studies of hybrid metal oxide semiconductors as photo anode in dye sensitized solar cells

Authors : Dr. Sreekala C. O., Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, ; Vindhya Hegde; TS Nivin; SD Baby Sreeja;

Publisher : AIP Conference Proceedings

Dr. Sreekala C. O., Hegde, V., Nivin, T. S., Sreeja, S. D. Baby, and Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, “Photovoltaic studies of hybrid metal oxide semiconductors as photo anode in dye sensitized solar cells”, AIP Conference Proceedings. 2019.

Year : 2019

Piezoelectric energy harvesting system suitable for remotely placed sensors with inter-digitated design

Authors : Dr. Sreekala C. O., Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Dr. Sreekala C. O.;; Baby Sreeja S. D.

Publisher : Publisher Logo Conference Proceedings,

Dr. Sreekala C. O., Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, and Baby Sreeja S. D., “Piezoelectric energy harvesting system suitable for remotely placed sensors with inter-digitated design”, Publisher Logo Conference Proceedings, vol. 2162, 1 vol. 2019.

Year : 2019

Effect of Lithium on the Mechanical Behavior of Magnesium

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Rahulan N, Kumaran S.

Publisher : Materials Today: Proceedings

Rahulan N., Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, and Kumaran S., “Effect of Lithium on the Mechanical Behavior of Magnesium”, Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 18, Part 7. pp. 2573 - 2580, 2019

Year : 2018

Mechanical behavior of Mg-Li-Al alloys

Authors : Rahulan N, Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Kumaran S.

Publisher : Materials Today: Proceedings,

Rahulan N., Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, and Kumaran S., “Mechanical behavior of Mg-Li-Al alloys”, Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 5, no. 9, Part 3, pp. 17935 - 17943, 2018.

Year : 2017

Al203 thin films on Silicon and Germanium substrates for CMOS and flash memory applications

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Dutta, S., Ramesh, S., Prathapan, R., and Sreehari, G

Publisher : AIP Conference Proceedings International Conference on Functional Materials, Characterization, Solid State Physics, Power, Thermal and Combustion Energy


Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Dutta, S., Ramesh, S., Prathapan, R., and Sreehari, G., “Al203 thin films on Silicon and Germanium substrates for CMOS and flash memory applications”, AIP Conference Proceedings International Conference on Functional Materials, Characterization, Solid State Physics, Power, Thermal and Combustion Energy 2017, FCSPTC 2017,Andhra Pradesh, India, vol. 1859. American Institute of Physics Inc., 2017

Year : 1999

Effect of N2O on the RF-magnetron Sputtered SrTiO3 Films for ULSI DRAM Application

Authors : Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Han, J. H., Balu, V., Lee, J. H., Mohemmedali, R., Wong, C. H., and Lee, J. C

Publisher : Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Integrated Ferroelectrics, Colorado Springs


Dr. Sundararaman Gopalan, Han, J. H., Balu, V., Lee, J. H., Mohemmedali, R., Wong, C. H., and Lee, J. C., “Effect of N2O on the RF-magnetron Sputtered SrTiO3 Films for ULSI DRAM Application”, Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Integrated Ferroelectrics. Colorado Springs, 1999.

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