Introduction: Unit cell, Bravais lattices, crystal systems, crystal planes and Miller indices, symmetry elements. Defects and imperfections – point defects, line defects, surface defects and volume defects.
Electrical conductivity: Classical free electron theory – assumptions, drift velocity, mobility and conductivity, drawbacks. quantum free electron theory – Fermi energy, Fermi factor, carrier concentration. Band theory of solids – origin of energy bands, effective mass, distinction between metals, insulators and semiconductors.