Stress-strain characteristics of concrete under multi- axial stresses- confined concrete- Effect of cyclic loading on concrete and reinforcing steel. Control of deflections- Control of cracking – Codal procedures on crack-width and deflection computation. Strut and Tie Models- corbels and deep beams. Design of corbels, Deep beams and RC walls. Inelastic behavior of concrete beams, moment – rotation curves, Strength and ductility concept- Design of joints in frames.
Stress strain behavior and strength of steel under static and cyclic loading; Buckling and post buckling behavior of plates; Behavior and design of members under tension, compression, bending, and combined forces.
Fasteners: Methods of installation and behavior. Screws and rivets in cold formed steel construction. Types of connections, Behavior of local elements, Analysis, Design and Detailing. Cold Formed Steel Members: Effective width and Direct Strength Design methods.