Introduction to passive and active systems – need for active systems – smart systems – definitions and implications – active control and adaptive control systems – examples. Components of smart systems– system features and interpretation of sensor data – pro active and reactive systems – demo example in component level – system level complexity. Materials used in smart systems – characteristics of sensors – different types smart materials – characteristics and behaviour of smart materials – modelling smart materials – examples. Control Systems – features – active systems – adaptive systems – electronic, thermal and hydraulic type actuators – characteristics of control systems – application examples. Integration of sensors and control systems – modelling features – sensor-response integration – processing for proactive and reactive components – FE models – examples.